Listado de Comandos de Linux

Comando Descripción
df

Informa del espacio en disco usado y disponible en sistemas de ficheros. Sin argumentos, informa de todos los sistemas de ficheros montados actualmente.

df -T muestra también el tipo de sistema de fichero (esto se encuentran en por ejemplo leyendo /etc/mtab).

df -h muestra en formato humano (Gigas, Megas, Kbs)

Ejemplos de salida:

# df
S.ficheros                                             1K-bloques   Usados Disponibles Uso% Montado en
rootfs                                                   92564480 12214708    75624680  14% /
udev                                                        10240        0       10240   0% /dev
tmpfs                                                      413592      696      412896   1% /run
/dev/disk/by-uuid/b3a847d1-6831-4375-9365-66cd704fc384   92564480 12214708    75624680  14% /
tmpfs                                                        5120        0        5120   0% /run/lock
tmpfs                                                     1631420      256     1631164   1% /run/shm
# df -h
S.ficheros                                             Tamaño Usados  Disp Uso% Montado en
rootfs                                                    89G    12G   73G  14% /
udev                                                      10M      0   10M   0% /dev
tmpfs                                                    404M   696K  404M   1% /run
/dev/disk/by-uuid/b3a847d1-6831-4375-9365-66cd704fc384    89G    12G   73G  14% /
tmpfs                                                    5,0M      0  5,0M   0% /run/lock
tmpfs                                                    1,6G   256K  1,6G   1% /run/shm
# df -hT
S.ficheros                                             Tipo     Tamaño Usados  Disp Uso% Montado en
rootfs                                                 rootfs      89G    12G   73G  14% /
udev                                                   devtmpfs    10M      0   10M   0% /dev
tmpfs                                                  tmpfs      404M   696K  404M   1% /run
/dev/disk/by-uuid/b3a847d1-6831-4375-9365-66cd704fc384 ext4        89G    12G   73G  14% /
tmpfs                                                  tmpfs      5,0M      0  5,0M   0% /run/lock
tmpfs                                                  tmpfs      1,6G   256K  1,6G   1% /run/shm

También puede ver el comando du para averiguar el espacio ocupado por un directorio (el paso de una carpeta)

dhclient

Cliente DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol).

dhclient eth0 intenta obtener una dirección IP para la interfaz eth0.


Nota: El archivo de configuración del cliente DHCP es /etc/dhcp/dhclient.conf y en /var/lib/dhcp/dhclient.leases (en Fedora es /var/lib/dhclient/) se encuentra una lista de las últimas asignaciones DHCPs.

diff

Muestra todas las líneas que difieren entre dos archivos de texto únicamente, línea a línea. No devuelve nada cuando los 2 ficheros son iguales. También existe en su versión zdiff.

diff -b ignora espacios en blanco.

diff nota1 nota2 muestra las diferencias entre los dos archivos.

diff -u viejo nuevo > parche.patch genera un parche que luego puede ser aplicado con el comando patch.

Luego se aplican los parches realizados con diff con el comando patch


Algunos comandos relacionados son: comm y cmp

dig

Esta herramienta viene en el paquete BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) que es una implementación de protocolos DNS y sirve para diagnosticar problemas con los DNS. Por lo general se invoca de la siguiente forma:

dig @IPdelservidorDNS nombre -t type

Si no se especifica el tipo de registro a consultar (A, ANY, MX, NS, SOA, HINFO, AXFR, TXT, etc.) por defecto solo devuelve el resultado del registro A (que es el que asocia la IP con el nombre de dominio). Para ver los tipos de registro vea el comando host.

dig @8.8.8.8 francisconi.org le preguntará al servidor DNS 8.8.8.8 sobre los registros A de francisconi.org

# dig @8.8.8.8 francisconi.org
; <<>> DiG 9.8.4-rpz2+rl005.12-P1 <<>> @8.8.8.8 francisconi.org
; (1 server found)
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 6599
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0

;; QUESTION SECTION:
;francisconi.org.               IN      A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
francisconi.org.        14399   IN      A       74.220.199.22

;; Query time: 468 msec
;; SERVER: 8.8.8.8#53(8.8.8.8)
;; WHEN: Thu Apr  3 23:05:04 2014
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 49

dig -t mx francisconi.org realizamos una consulta sobre los registros MX del dominio francisconi.org.

# dig -t mx francisconi.org

; <<>> DiG 9.8.4-rpz2+rl005.12-P1 <<>> -t mx francisconi.org
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 2334
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0

;; QUESTION SECTION:
;francisconi.org.               IN      MX

;; ANSWER SECTION:
francisconi.org.        14400   IN      MX      0 francisconi.org.

;; Query time: 453 msec
;; SERVER: 192.168.1.1#53(192.168.1.1)
;; WHEN: Thu Apr  3 23:08:13 2014
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 49

La pregunta en la sección QUESTION es, cual es el registro MX del dominio francisconi.org y en la sección ANSWER (respuesta) dice que el servidor mail del dominio francisconi.org es el mismo nodo francisconi.org.


Tipos de registros:

A Registro de dirección que resuelve un nombre de un anfitrión hacia una dirección IPv4.

AAA Registro de dirección que resuelve un nombre de un anfitrión hacia una dirección IPv6.

MX Registro de servidor de correo que sirve para definir una lista de servidores de correo para un dominio, así como la prioridad, el que tiene el número más bajo de los servidores de correo es el que tiene mayor prioridad.

PTR Registro de apuntador que resuelve direcciones IPv4 hacia el nombre anfitriones. Es decir, hace lo contrario al registro A. Se utiliza en zonas de Resolución Inversa.

NS Registro de servidor de nombres que sirve para definir una lista de servidores de nombres con autoridad para un dominio.

SOA Registro de inicio de autoridad que especifica el Servidor DNS Maestro (o Primario) que proporcionará la información con autoridad acerca de un dominio de Internet, dirección de correo electrónico del administrador, número de serie del dominio y parámetros de tiempo para la zona.

SRV Registro de servicios que especifica información acerca de servicios disponibles a través del dominio.

CNAME Registro de nombre canónico que hace que un nombre sea alias de otro.


También le puede interesar los comandos relacionados host y nslookup

dir

Muestra o cambia de directorio, es similar al comando dir de MS-DOS.

dir .. sube un directorio (hacia el directorio raíz).

dir . directorio de trabajo.

El Linux el comando más usado es cd en ves del comando dir.

dmesg

Muestra los mensajes del kernel, desde que arrancó; como detecto los discos, y demás drivers. Por ejemplo cuando se inserta un dispositivo USB se puede observar los mensajes del kernel, para ver como lo levantó y de que forma. También sirve para cuando estamos iniciando el sistema y vemos un mensaje de error que luego queremos auditar.

dmesg |ccze -A muestra la salida de dmesg con colores para facilitar la auditoria.

dmesg -xT -l err,crit,emerg solo muestra los errores del kernel

# dmesg -xT -l err,crit,emerg
kern  :err   : [jue abr 10 09:48:38 2014] iwl3945 0000:02:00.0: Error sending C_RXON: time out after 500ms.
kern  :err   : [jue abr 10 09:48:38 2014] iwl3945 0000:02:00.0: Error clearing ASSOC_MSK on current configuration (-110).
dmidecode

Nos reporta información sobre el hardware del sistema, analizando la informacion del DMI (Desktop Management Interface), de la BIOS. Esta tabla contiene descripción de los componentes de hardware del sistema, así como información útil, tal como números de serie, la versión del BIOS, etc. Gracias a esta tabla, se puede acceder a informacion útil sin tener que abrir el maquina. .

Ejemplo de la salida del comando dmidecode sin parámetros:

# dmidecode 
# dmidecode 2.11
# SMBIOS entry point at 0x000f04c0
SMBIOS 2.7 present.
77 structures occupying 3195 bytes.
Table at 0x000EC130.

Handle 0x0000, DMI type 0, 24 bytes
BIOS Information
	Vendor: American Megatrends Inc.
	Version: F5
	Release Date: 05/07/2014
	Address: 0xF0000
	Runtime Size: 64 kB
	ROM Size: 16384 kB
	Characteristics:
		PCI is supported
		BIOS is upgradeable
		BIOS shadowing is allowed
		Boot from CD is supported
		Selectable boot is supported
		BIOS ROM is socketed
		EDD is supported
		5.25"/1.2 MB floppy services are supported (int 13h)
		3.5"/720 kB floppy services are supported (int 13h)
		3.5"/2.88 MB floppy services are supported (int 13h)
		Print screen service is supported (int 5h)
		8042 keyboard services are supported (int 9h)
		Serial services are supported (int 14h)
		Printer services are supported (int 17h)
		ACPI is supported
		USB legacy is supported
		BIOS boot specification is supported
		Targeted content distribution is supported
		UEFI is supported
	BIOS Revision: 4.6

Handle 0x0001, DMI type 1, 27 bytes
System Information
	Manufacturer: Gigabyte Technology Co., Ltd.
	Product Name: Z97X-SOC Force
	Version: To be filled by O.E.M.
	Serial Number: To be filled by O.E.M.
	UUID: 03D40274-0435-05E8-0206-E40700080009
	Wake-up Type: Power Switch
	SKU Number: To be filled by O.E.M.
	Family: To be filled by O.E.M.

Handle 0x0002, DMI type 2, 15 bytes
Base Board Information
	Manufacturer: Gigabyte Technology Co., Ltd.
	Product Name: Z97X-SOC Force
	Version: x.x
	Serial Number: To be filled by O.E.M.
	Asset Tag: To be filled by O.E.M.
	Features:
		Board is a hosting board
		Board is replaceable
	Location In Chassis: To be filled by O.E.M.
	Chassis Handle: 0x0003
	Type: Motherboard
	Contained Object Handles: 0

Handle 0x0003, DMI type 3, 22 bytes
Chassis Information
	Manufacturer: Gigabyte Technology Co., Ltd.
	Type: Desktop
	Lock: Not Present
	Version: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	Serial Number: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	Asset Tag: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	Boot-up State: Safe
	Power Supply State: Safe
	Thermal State: Safe
	Security Status: None
	OEM Information: 0x00000000
	Height: Unspecified
	Number Of Power Cords: 1
	Contained Elements: 0
	SKU Number: To be filled by O.E.M.

Handle 0x0004, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J1A1
	Internal Connector Type: None
	External Reference Designator: PS2Mouse
	External Connector Type: PS/2
	Port Type: Mouse Port

Handle 0x0005, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J1A1
	Internal Connector Type: None
	External Reference Designator: Keyboard
	External Connector Type: PS/2
	Port Type: Keyboard Port

Handle 0x0006, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J2A1
	Internal Connector Type: None
	External Reference Designator: TV Out
	External Connector Type: Mini Centronics Type-14
	Port Type: Other

Handle 0x0007, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J2A2A
	Internal Connector Type: None
	External Reference Designator: COM A
	External Connector Type: DB-9 male
	Port Type: Serial Port 16550A Compatible

Handle 0x0008, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J2A2B
	Internal Connector Type: None
	External Reference Designator: Video
	External Connector Type: DB-15 female
	Port Type: Video Port

Handle 0x0009, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J3A1
	Internal Connector Type: None
	External Reference Designator: USB1
	External Connector Type: Access Bus (USB)
	Port Type: USB

Handle 0x000A, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J3A1
	Internal Connector Type: None
	External Reference Designator: USB2
	External Connector Type: Access Bus (USB)
	Port Type: USB

Handle 0x000B, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J3A1
	Internal Connector Type: None
	External Reference Designator: USB3
	External Connector Type: Access Bus (USB)
	Port Type: USB

Handle 0x000C, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J9A1 - TPM HDR
	Internal Connector Type: Other
	External Reference Designator: Not Specified
	External Connector Type: None
	Port Type: Other

Handle 0x000D, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J9C1 - PCIE DOCKING CONN
	Internal Connector Type: Other
	External Reference Designator: Not Specified
	External Connector Type: None
	Port Type: Other

Handle 0x000E, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J2B3 - CPU FAN
	Internal Connector Type: Other
	External Reference Designator: Not Specified
	External Connector Type: None
	Port Type: Other

Handle 0x000F, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J6C2 - EXT HDMI
	Internal Connector Type: Other
	External Reference Designator: Not Specified
	External Connector Type: None
	Port Type: Other

Handle 0x0010, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J3C1 - GMCH FAN
	Internal Connector Type: Other
	External Reference Designator: Not Specified
	External Connector Type: None
	Port Type: Other

Handle 0x0011, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J1D1 - ITP
	Internal Connector Type: Other
	External Reference Designator: Not Specified
	External Connector Type: None
	Port Type: Other

Handle 0x0012, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J9E2 - MDC INTPSR
	Internal Connector Type: Other
	External Reference Designator: Not Specified
	External Connector Type: None
	Port Type: Other

Handle 0x0013, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J9E4 - MDC INTPSR
	Internal Connector Type: Other
	External Reference Designator: Not Specified
	External Connector Type: None
	Port Type: Other

Handle 0x0014, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J9E3 - LPC HOT DOCKING
	Internal Connector Type: Other
	External Reference Designator: Not Specified
	External Connector Type: None
	Port Type: Other

Handle 0x0015, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J9E1 - SCAN MATRIX
	Internal Connector Type: Other
	External Reference Designator: Not Specified
	External Connector Type: None
	Port Type: Other

Handle 0x0016, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J9G1 - LPC SIDE BAND
	Internal Connector Type: Other
	External Reference Designator: Not Specified
	External Connector Type: None
	Port Type: Other

Handle 0x0017, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J8F1 - UNIFIED
	Internal Connector Type: Other
	External Reference Designator: Not Specified
	External Connector Type: None
	Port Type: Other

Handle 0x0018, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J6F1 - LVDS
	Internal Connector Type: Other
	External Reference Designator: Not Specified
	External Connector Type: None
	Port Type: Other

Handle 0x0019, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J2F1 - LAI FAN
	Internal Connector Type: Other
	External Reference Designator: Not Specified
	External Connector Type: None
	Port Type: Other

Handle 0x001A, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J2G1 - GFX VID
	Internal Connector Type: Other
	External Reference Designator: Not Specified
	External Connector Type: None
	Port Type: Other

Handle 0x001B, DMI type 8, 9 bytes
Port Connector Information
	Internal Reference Designator: J1G6 - AC JACK
	Internal Connector Type: Other
	External Reference Designator: Not Specified
	External Connector Type: None
	Port Type: Other

Handle 0x001C, DMI type 9, 17 bytes
System Slot Information
	Designation: J6B2
	Type: x16 PCI Express
	Current Usage: In Use
	Length: Long
	ID: 0
	Characteristics:
		3.3 V is provided
		Opening is shared
		PME signal is supported
	Bus Address: 0000:00:02.0

Handle 0x001D, DMI type 9, 17 bytes
System Slot Information
	Designation: J6B1
	Type: x1 PCI Express
	Current Usage: In Use
	Length: Short
	ID: 1
	Characteristics:
		3.3 V is provided
		Opening is shared
		PME signal is supported
	Bus Address: 0000:00:1c.0

Handle 0x001E, DMI type 9, 17 bytes
System Slot Information
	Designation: J6D1
	Type: x8 PCI Express
	Current Usage: In Use
	Length: Short
	ID: 2
	Characteristics:
		3.3 V is provided
		Opening is shared
		PME signal is supported
	Bus Address: 0000:00:01.0

Handle 0x001F, DMI type 9, 17 bytes
System Slot Information
	Designation: J7B1
	Type: x16 PCI Express
	Current Usage: In Use
	Length: Short
	ID: 3
	Characteristics:
		3.3 V is provided
		Opening is shared
		PME signal is supported
	Bus Address: 0000:00:03.0

Handle 0x0020, DMI type 9, 17 bytes
System Slot Information
	Designation: J8B4
	Type: x1 PCI Express
	Current Usage: In Use
	Length: Short
	ID: 4
	Characteristics:
		3.3 V is provided
		Opening is shared
		PME signal is supported
	Bus Address: 0000:00:1c.7

Handle 0x0021, DMI type 9, 17 bytes
System Slot Information
	Designation: J8B3
	Type: 32-bit PCI
	Current Usage: In Use
	Length: Short
	ID: 6
	Characteristics:
		3.3 V is provided
		Opening is shared
		PME signal is supported
	Bus Address: 0000:14:1e.0

Handle 0x0022, DMI type 10, 6 bytes
On Board Device Information
	Type: Video
	Status: Enabled
	Description:    To Be Filled By O.E.M.

Handle 0x0023, DMI type 11, 5 bytes
OEM Strings
	String 1: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	String 2: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	String 3: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	String 4: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	String 5: To Be Filled By O.E.M.

Handle 0x0024, DMI type 12, 5 bytes
System Configuration Options
	Option 1: To Be Filled By O.E.M.

Handle 0x0025, DMI type 24, 5 bytes
Hardware Security
	Power-On Password Status: Disabled
	Keyboard Password Status: Disabled
	Administrator Password Status: Disabled
	Front Panel Reset Status: Disabled

Handle 0x0026, DMI type 32, 20 bytes
System Boot Information
	Status: No errors detected

Handle 0x0027, DMI type 34, 11 bytes
Management Device
	Description: LM78-1
	Type: LM78
	Address: 0x00000000
	Address Type: I/O Port

Handle 0x0028, DMI type 26, 22 bytes
Voltage Probe
	Description: LM78A
	Location: <OUT OF SPEC>
	Status: <OUT OF SPEC>
	Maximum Value: Unknown
	Minimum Value: Unknown
	Resolution: Unknown
	Tolerance: Unknown
	Accuracy: Unknown
	OEM-specific Information: 0x00000000
	Nominal Value: Unknown

Handle 0x0029, DMI type 36, 16 bytes
Management Device Threshold Data
	Lower Non-critical Threshold: 1
	Upper Non-critical Threshold: 2
	Lower Critical Threshold: 3
	Upper Critical Threshold: 4
	Lower Non-recoverable Threshold: 5
	Upper Non-recoverable Threshold: 6

Handle 0x002A, DMI type 35, 11 bytes
Management Device Component
	Description: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	Management Device Handle: 0x0027
	Component Handle: 0x0027
	Threshold Handle: 0x0028

Handle 0x002B, DMI type 28, 22 bytes
Temperature Probe
	Description: LM78A
	Location: <OUT OF SPEC>
	Status: <OUT OF SPEC>
	Maximum Value: Unknown
	Minimum Value: Unknown
	Resolution: Unknown
	Tolerance: Unknown
	Accuracy: Unknown
	OEM-specific Information: 0x00000000
	Nominal Value: Unknown

Handle 0x002C, DMI type 36, 16 bytes
Management Device Threshold Data
	Lower Non-critical Threshold: 1
	Upper Non-critical Threshold: 2
	Lower Critical Threshold: 3
	Upper Critical Threshold: 4
	Lower Non-recoverable Threshold: 5
	Upper Non-recoverable Threshold: 6

Handle 0x002D, DMI type 35, 11 bytes
Management Device Component
	Description: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	Management Device Handle: 0x0027
	Component Handle: 0x002A
	Threshold Handle: 0x002B

Handle 0x002E, DMI type 27, 15 bytes
Cooling Device
	Temperature Probe Handle: 0x002B
	Type: <OUT OF SPEC>
	Status: <OUT OF SPEC>
	Cooling Unit Group: 1
	OEM-specific Information: 0x00000000
	Nominal Speed: Unknown Or Non-rotating
	Description: Cooling Dev 1

Handle 0x002F, DMI type 36, 16 bytes
Management Device Threshold Data
	Lower Non-critical Threshold: 1
	Upper Non-critical Threshold: 2
	Lower Critical Threshold: 3
	Upper Critical Threshold: 4
	Lower Non-recoverable Threshold: 5
	Upper Non-recoverable Threshold: 6

Handle 0x0030, DMI type 35, 11 bytes
Management Device Component
	Description: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	Management Device Handle: 0x0027
	Component Handle: 0x002D
	Threshold Handle: 0x002E

Handle 0x0031, DMI type 27, 15 bytes
Cooling Device
	Temperature Probe Handle: 0x002B
	Type: <OUT OF SPEC>
	Status: <OUT OF SPEC>
	Cooling Unit Group: 1
	OEM-specific Information: 0x00000000
	Nominal Speed: Unknown Or Non-rotating
	Description: Not Specified

Handle 0x0032, DMI type 36, 16 bytes
Management Device Threshold Data
	Lower Non-critical Threshold: 1
	Upper Non-critical Threshold: 2
	Lower Critical Threshold: 3
	Upper Critical Threshold: 4
	Lower Non-recoverable Threshold: 5
	Upper Non-recoverable Threshold: 6

Handle 0x0033, DMI type 35, 11 bytes
Management Device Component
	Description: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	Management Device Handle: 0x0027
	Component Handle: 0x0030
	Threshold Handle: 0x0031

Handle 0x0034, DMI type 29, 22 bytes
Electrical Current Probe
	Description: ABC
	Location: <OUT OF SPEC>
	Status: <OUT OF SPEC>
	Maximum Value: Unknown
	Minimum Value: Unknown
	Resolution: Unknown
	Tolerance: Unknown
	Accuracy: Unknown
	OEM-specific Information: 0x00000000
	Nominal Value: Unknown

Handle 0x0035, DMI type 36, 16 bytes
Management Device Threshold Data

Handle 0x0036, DMI type 35, 11 bytes
Management Device Component
	Description: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	Management Device Handle: 0x0027
	Component Handle: 0x0033
	Threshold Handle: 0x0031

Handle 0x0037, DMI type 26, 22 bytes
Voltage Probe
	Description: LM78A
	Location: Power Unit
	Status: OK
	Maximum Value: Unknown
	Minimum Value: Unknown
	Resolution: Unknown
	Tolerance: Unknown
	Accuracy: Unknown
	OEM-specific Information: 0x00000000
	Nominal Value: Unknown

Handle 0x0038, DMI type 28, 22 bytes
Temperature Probe
	Description: LM78A
	Location: Power Unit
	Status: OK
	Maximum Value: Unknown
	Minimum Value: Unknown
	Resolution: Unknown
	Tolerance: Unknown
	Accuracy: Unknown
	OEM-specific Information: 0x00000000
	Nominal Value: Unknown

Handle 0x0039, DMI type 27, 15 bytes
Cooling Device
	Temperature Probe Handle: 0x0038
	Type: Power Supply Fan
	Status: OK
	Cooling Unit Group: 1
	OEM-specific Information: 0x00000000
	Nominal Speed: Unknown Or Non-rotating
	Description: Cooling Dev 1

Handle 0x003A, DMI type 29, 22 bytes
Electrical Current Probe
	Description: ABC
	Location: Power Unit
	Status: OK
	Maximum Value: Unknown
	Minimum Value: Unknown
	Resolution: Unknown
	Tolerance: Unknown
	Accuracy: Unknown
	OEM-specific Information: 0x00000000
	Nominal Value: Unknown

Handle 0x003B, DMI type 39, 22 bytes
System Power Supply
	Power Unit Group: 1
	Location: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	Name: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	Manufacturer: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	Serial Number: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	Asset Tag: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	Model Part Number: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	Revision: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
	Max Power Capacity: Unknown
	Status: Present, OK
	Type: Switching
	Input Voltage Range Switching: Auto-switch
	Plugged: Yes
	Hot Replaceable: No
	Input Voltage Probe Handle: 0x0037
	Cooling Device Handle: 0x0039
	Input Current Probe Handle: 0x003A

Handle 0x003C, DMI type 41, 11 bytes
Onboard Device
	Reference Designation:  Onboard LAN
	Type: Ethernet
	Status: Enabled
	Type Instance: 1
	Bus Address: 0000:00:19.0

Handle 0x003D, DMI type 4, 42 bytes
Processor Information
	Socket Designation: SOCKET 0
	Type: Central Processor
	Family: Core i7
	Manufacturer: Intel
	ID: C3 06 03 00 FF FB EB BF
	Signature: Type 0, Family 6, Model 60, Stepping 3
	Flags:
		FPU (Floating-point unit on-chip)
		VME (Virtual mode extension)
		DE (Debugging extension)
		PSE (Page size extension)
		TSC (Time stamp counter)
		MSR (Model specific registers)
		PAE (Physical address extension)
		MCE (Machine check exception)
		CX8 (CMPXCHG8 instruction supported)
		APIC (On-chip APIC hardware supported)
		SEP (Fast system call)
		MTRR (Memory type range registers)
		PGE (Page global enable)
		MCA (Machine check architecture)
		CMOV (Conditional move instruction supported)
		PAT (Page attribute table)
		PSE-36 (36-bit page size extension)
		CLFSH (CLFLUSH instruction supported)
		DS (Debug store)
		ACPI (ACPI supported)
		MMX (MMX technology supported)
		FXSR (FXSAVE and FXSTOR instructions supported)
		SSE (Streaming SIMD extensions)
		SSE2 (Streaming SIMD extensions 2)
		SS (Self-snoop)
		HTT (Multi-threading)
		TM (Thermal monitor supported)
		PBE (Pending break enabled)
	Version: Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-4790K CPU @ 4.00GHz
	Voltage: 1.2 V
	External Clock: 100 MHz
	Max Speed: 3800 MHz
	Current Speed: 4000 MHz
	Status: Populated, Enabled
	Upgrade: Socket BGA1155
	L1 Cache Handle: 0x003E
	L2 Cache Handle: 0x003F
	L3 Cache Handle: 0x0040
	Serial Number: Not Specified
	Asset Tag: Fill By OEM
	Part Number: Fill By OEM
	Core Count: 4
	Core Enabled: 4
	Thread Count: 8
	Characteristics:
		64-bit capable

Handle 0x003E, DMI type 7, 19 bytes
Cache Information
	Socket Designation: CPU Internal L1
	Configuration: Enabled, Not Socketed, Level 1
	Operational Mode: Write Back
	Location: Internal
	Installed Size: 256 kB
	Maximum Size: 256 kB
	Supported SRAM Types:
		Synchronous
	Installed SRAM Type: Synchronous
	Speed: Unknown
	Error Correction Type: Parity
	System Type: Other
	Associativity: 8-way Set-associative

Handle 0x003F, DMI type 7, 19 bytes
Cache Information
	Socket Designation: CPU Internal L2
	Configuration: Enabled, Not Socketed, Level 2
	Operational Mode: Write Back
	Location: Internal
	Installed Size: 1024 kB
	Maximum Size: 1024 kB
	Supported SRAM Types:
		Synchronous
	Installed SRAM Type: Synchronous
	Speed: Unknown
	Error Correction Type: Single-bit ECC
	System Type: Unified
	Associativity: 8-way Set-associative

Handle 0x0040, DMI type 7, 19 bytes
Cache Information
	Socket Designation: CPU Internal L3
	Configuration: Enabled, Not Socketed, Level 3
	Operational Mode: Write Back
	Location: Internal
	Installed Size: 8192 kB
	Maximum Size: 8192 kB
	Supported SRAM Types:
		Synchronous
	Installed SRAM Type: Synchronous
	Speed: Unknown
	Error Correction Type: Multi-bit ECC
	System Type: Unified
	Associativity: 16-way Set-associative

Handle 0x0042, DMI type 16, 23 bytes
Physical Memory Array
	Location: System Board Or Motherboard
	Use: System Memory
	Error Correction Type: None
	Maximum Capacity: 32 GB
	Error Information Handle: Not Provided
	Number Of Devices: 4

Handle 0x0043, DMI type 17, 34 bytes
Memory Device
	Array Handle: 0x0042
	Error Information Handle: Not Provided
	Total Width: Unknown
	Data Width: Unknown
	Size: No Module Installed
	Form Factor: DIMM
	Set: None
	Locator: ChannelA-DIMM0
	Bank Locator: BANK 0
	Type: Unknown
	Type Detail: None
	Speed: Unknown
	Manufacturer: [Empty]
	Serial Number: [Empty]
	Asset Tag: Not Specified
	Part Number: [Empty]
	Rank: Unknown
	Configured Clock Speed: Unknown

Handle 0x0044, DMI type 17, 34 bytes
Memory Device
	Array Handle: 0x0042
	Error Information Handle: Not Provided
	Total Width: 64 bits
	Data Width: 64 bits
	Size: 8192 MB
	Form Factor: DIMM
	Set: None
	Locator: ChannelA-DIMM1
	Bank Locator: BANK 1
	Type: DDR3
	Type Detail: Synchronous
	Speed: 1600 MHz
	Manufacturer: Kingston
	Serial Number: 4C1A2248
	Asset Tag: 9876543210
	Part Number: KHX1600C10D3/8G   
	Rank: 2
	Configured Clock Speed: 1600 MHz

Handle 0x0045, DMI type 17, 34 bytes
Memory Device
	Array Handle: 0x0042
	Error Information Handle: Not Provided
	Total Width: Unknown
	Data Width: Unknown
	Size: No Module Installed
	Form Factor: DIMM
	Set: None
	Locator: ChannelB-DIMM0
	Bank Locator: BANK 2
	Type: Unknown
	Type Detail: None
	Speed: Unknown
	Manufacturer: [Empty]
	Serial Number: [Empty]
	Asset Tag: Not Specified
	Part Number: [Empty]
	Rank: Unknown
	Configured Clock Speed: Unknown

Handle 0x0046, DMI type 17, 34 bytes
Memory Device
	Array Handle: 0x0042
	Error Information Handle: Not Provided
	Total Width: 64 bits
	Data Width: 64 bits
	Size: 8192 MB
	Form Factor: DIMM
	Set: None
	Locator: ChannelB-DIMM1
	Bank Locator: BANK 3
	Type: DDR3
	Type Detail: Synchronous
	Speed: 1600 MHz
	Manufacturer: Kingston
	Serial Number: 501A4F48
	Asset Tag: 9876543210
	Part Number: KHX1600C10D3/8G   
	Rank: 2
	Configured Clock Speed: 1600 MHz

Handle 0x0047, DMI type 19, 31 bytes
Memory Array Mapped Address
	Starting Address: 0x00000000000
	Ending Address: 0x003FFFFFFFF
	Range Size: 16 GB
	Physical Array Handle: 0x0042
	Partition Width: 4

Handle 0x0048, DMI type 20, 35 bytes
Memory Device Mapped Address
	Starting Address: 0x00000000000
	Ending Address: 0x001FFFFFFFF
	Range Size: 8 GB
	Physical Device Handle: 0x0046
	Memory Array Mapped Address Handle: 0x0047
	Partition Row Position: Unknown
	Interleave Position: 1
	Interleaved Data Depth: 2

Handle 0x0049, DMI type 20, 35 bytes
Memory Device Mapped Address
	Starting Address: 0x00200000000
	Ending Address: 0x003FFFFFFFF
	Range Size: 8 GB
	Physical Device Handle: 0x0046
	Memory Array Mapped Address Handle: 0x0047
	Partition Row Position: Unknown
	Interleave Position: 2
	Interleaved Data Depth: 2

Handle 0x004A, DMI type 136, 6 bytes
OEM-specific Type
	Header and Data:
		88 06 4A 00 00 00

Handle 0x004B, DMI type 13, 22 bytes
BIOS Language Information
	Language Description Format: Long
	Installable Languages: 16
		en|US|iso8859-1
		fr|FR|iso8859-1
		es|ES|iso8859-1
		de|DE|iso8859-1
		ru|RU|iso8859-5
		ko|KR|unicode
		it|IT|iso8859-1
		..2.....0. ......".....
		<BAD INDEX>
		<BAD INDEX>
		<BAD INDEX>
		<BAD INDEX>
		<BAD INDEX>
		<BAD INDEX>
		<BAD INDEX>
		<BAD INDEX>
	Currently Installed Language: es|ES|iso8859-1

Handle 0x0050, DMI type 131, 64 bytes
OEM-specific Type
	Header and Data:
		83 40 50 00 31 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
		F8 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 01 00 09 00
		60 04 00 00 00 00 00 00 C8 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
		00 00 00 00 26 00 00 00 76 50 72 6F 00 00 00 00

Handle 0x0051, DMI type 127, 4 bytes
End Of Table



dmidecode -t 16 Solo muestra parametrosrelasionados con la RAM, como por ejemplo el máximo de memoria RAM que es capaz de soportar nuestro equipo y determinar el número de slots (ranuras de expansión) disponibles, por si queremos ampliar la memoria.

A continuación se muestra parte de la salida del comando dmidecode -t 16 con se ve es mayor la información

# dmidecode -t 16
# dmidecode 2.11
# SMBIOS entry point at 0x000f04c0
SMBIOS 2.7 present.

Handle 0x0042, DMI type 16, 23 bytes
Physical Memory Array
	Location: System Board Or Motherboard
	Use: System Memory
	Error Correction Type: None
	Maximum Capacity: 32 GB
	Error Information Handle: Not Provided
	Number Of Devices: 4

También le puede interesar los comandos relacionados lshw y hardinfo

dnsdomainname

Muestra la parte del nombre de dominio FQDN (Nombre de Dominio Completamente Especificado), es decir la parte que va después del primer punto en el nombre de dominio. El FQDN completo del sistema se muestra con el comando hostname de la siguiente forma hostname --fqdn

do-release-upgrade

Actualiza la distribución de Ubuntu

do-release-upgrade -d comprueba si la actualización a la última versión es posible.

do-release-upgrade -m MODE Actualiza a modo server (servidor) o desktop (escritorio).

dpkg

Se utiliza para instalar, desinstalar, y proporcionar información sobre los paquetes .deb. NO resuelve las dependencias (ver el comando gdebi el cual si intenta resolver las dependencias).

dpkg --get-selections devuelve una lista con los paquetes instalados.

dpkg --info pp.deb informa sobre las dependencias y las versiones de las mismas.

dpkg -c /home/pp.deb muestra el contenido del paquete pp.deb.

dpkg -i pp.deb instala el paquete pp.deb.

dpkg -L mc lista los ficheros instalados en el sistema, que pertenecen al paquete mc.

dpkg -r pp.deb desinstala el paquete pp.deb.

dpkg –force -r pp.deb fuerza la desinstalación del paquete pp.deb.

dpkg -–purge pp.deb desinstala el paquete pp.deb y sus archivos de configuración.

dpkg -l *vi* lista los paquetes que contienen la cadena vi en su nombre de paquete.

dpkg -l lista el estado de los paquetes conocidos por el sistema.

dpkg -l | grep ^[a-z]n muestra los paquetes no instalados.

dpkg -S mcview.1.gz busca a cuál de los paquetes instalados, pertenece el paquete mcview.1.gz, respondiendo con: mc: /usr/share/man/man1/mcview.1.gz el nombre del paquete y donde está almacenado el fichero mcview.1.gz

dpkg --configure --pending reconfigura cualquier paquete que aun no esté configurado.

dpkg --configure -a intenta reparar el sistema.

dpkg --get-selections lista el estados de selección de paquetes instalados y desintalados en el sistema.

dpkg --get-selections "*" lista el estado de selección de los paquetes instalados, desinstalados y purgados en el sistema. Muy útil para realizar backups de la lista de paquetes instalados/desinstalados y purgados.

dpkg --set-selections < mis_selecciones modificará el estado de selección de los paquetes escogidos al contenido en el archivo mis_selecciones, como esto, no instalará ni borrará nada, simplemente modificará el estado de selección de los paquetes escogidos (para realizar esto use apt-get -u dselect-upgrade).


Significado de los caracteres:

El primer carácter de cada línea indica el estado deseado del paquete:

u desconocido

i instalar

r eliminar

p purgar

h mantener

El segundo carácter de cada línea indica el estado actual del paquete:

n no instalado

i instalado

c Sólo los archivos de configuración del paquete existen en el sistema.

u El paquete sea desempaquetado, pero no se ha configurado

f fallo configuración.

h La instalación del paquete se ha iniciado pero no terminado por alguna razón.

w El paquete esta a la espera del procesamiento de otro paquete.

t El paquete depende del procesamiento de otros paquetes.

El tercer carácter de cada línea indica el estado de error del paquete:

h mantener.

r requiere reinstalar.

x ambos problemas.

dpkg-deb

Si bien, esté comando puede empaquetar, desempaquetar, y mostrar información sobre los archivos de Debian (.deb). Su uso principal es para crear archivos .deb.

dpkg-deb -I /root/ejemplos/carpeta3/nmap_6.40-2_i386.deb muestra información sobre el el paquete nmap_6.40-2_i386.deb como se ve, hay que especificar donde se encuentra el paquete .deb (la ruta del paquete).

# dpkg-deb -I /root/ejemplos/carpeta3/nmap_6.40-2_i386.deb
 paquete debian nuevo, versión 2.0.
 tamaño 4936038 bytes: archivo de control= 18416 bytes.
    1057 bytes,    23 líneas     control
   46400 bytes,   619 líneas     md5sums
 Package: nmap
 Version: 6.40-2
 Architecture: i386
 Maintainer: root 
 Installed-Size: 17424
 Section: alien
 Priority: extra
 Description: Network exploration tool and security scanner
  .
  Nmap ("Network Mapper") is a free and open source utility
  for network exploration or security auditing. Many systems and network
  administrators also find it useful for tasks such as network
  inventory, managing service upgrade schedules, and monitoring host or
  service uptime. Nmap uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine
  what hosts are available on the network, what services (application
  name and version) those hosts are offering, what operating systems
  (and OS versions) they are running, what type of packet
  filters/firewalls are in use, and dozens of other characteristics. It
  was designed to rapidly scan large networks, but works fine against
  single hosts. Nmap runs on all major computer operating systems, and
  both console and graphical versions are available.
  .
  (Converted from a rpm package by alien version 8.87.)

dpkg-deb -b directorio crea una archivo .deb del directorio.


Las aplicaciones más frecuentes para instalar, desinstalar y mostrar paquetes .deb son: apt-get y aptitude, por lo cual visite esos comandos.

dpkg-reconfigure

Reconfigura paquetes deb instalados.

dpkg-reconfigure –p low pp.deb reconfigura el paquete pp.deb pudiendo elegir entre tres niveles de reconfiguración (low, mediun, high) dependiendo la necesidad.

dpkg-reconfigure -p mediun xserver-xorg reconfigura la interfaz gráfica.

dpkg-reconfigure locales reconfigura el lenguaje por defecto (es_Es.UTF8, LATIN1, etc.)

Páginas

 

Solicita Asistencia

Llámenos al:+54-9-11-32788353

Envíenos un e-mail: consultas@ ---Para enviar el SPAM--- francisconi.org

Skype Status for francisconi.hugo.adrian
 

Suscríbete

Suscríbete y recibe las últimas actualizaciones, noticias y más ...